Selasa, 13 April 2010

about Korea, (Tentang Korea Selatan)

An independent Korean state or collection of states has existed almost continuously for several millennia. Between its initial unification in the 7th century - from three predecessor Korean states - until the 20th century, Korea existed as a single independent country. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, Korea became a protectorate of imperial Japan, and in 1910 it was annexed as a colony. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the United States in 1945. After World War II, a Republic of Korea (ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a Communist-style government was installed in the north (the DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside soldiers from the ROK to defend South Korea from DPRK attacks supported by China and the Soviet Union. An armistice was signed in 1953, splitting the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. Thereafter, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth with per capita income rising to roughly 14 times the level of North Korea. In 1993, KIM Young-sam became South Korea's first civilian president following 32 years of military rule. South Korea today is a fully functioning modern democracy. In June 2000, a historic first North-South summit took place between the South's President KIM Dae-jung and the North's leader KIM Jong Il. In October 2007, a second North-South summit took place between the South's President ROH Moo-hyun and the North Korean leader. Harsh rhetoric and unwillingness by North Korea to engage with President LEE Myung-bak following his February 2008 inauguration has strained inter-Korean relations. 

An independent Korean state or collection of states has existed almost continuously for several millennia. Between its initial unification in the 7th century - from three predecessor Korean states - until the 20th century, Korea existed as a single independent country. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, Korea became a protectorate of imperial Japan, and in 1910 it was annexed as a colony. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the United States in 1945. After World War II, a Republic of Korea (ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a Communist-style government was installed in the north (the DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside soldiers from the ROK to defend South Korea from DPRK attacks supported by China and the Soviet Union. An armistice was signed in 1953, splitting the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. Thereafter, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth with per capita income rising to roughly 14 times the level of North Korea. In 1993, KIM Young-sam became South Korea's first civilian president following 32 years of military rule. South Korea today is a fully functioning modern democracy. In June 2000, a historic first North-South summit took place between the South's President KIM Dae-jung and the North's leader KIM Jong Il. In October 2007, a second North-South summit took place between the South's President ROH Moo-hyun and the North Korean leader. Harsh rhetoric and unwillingness by North Korea to engage with President LEE Myung-bak following his February 2008 inauguration has strained inter-Korean relations. 


Geography
Strategic location on Korea Strait
Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea
Geographic coordinates: 37 00 N, 127 30 E
Area: total: 99,720 sq km land: 96,920 sq km water: 2,800 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Indiana
Land Boundaries: total: 238 km border countries: North Korea 238 km
Coastline: 2,413 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the Korea Strait contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: not specified
Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m
Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower potential
Land use: arable land: 16.58% permanent crops: 2.01% other: 81.41% (2005)
Irrigated land: 8,780 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest
Current Environment Issues: air pollution in large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift net fishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
People
Population: 48,508,972 (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 25
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 4,278,581/female 3,887,516) 15-64 years: 72.3% (male 17,897,053/female 17,196,840) 65 years and over: 10.8% (male 2,104,589/female 3,144,393) (2009 est.)
Median age: total: 37.3 years male: 36 years female: 38.5 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.266% (2009 est.)
Birth rate: 8.93 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.26 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.49 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.72 years male: 75.45 years female: 82.22 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
Nationality: noun: Korean(s) adjective: Korean
Ethnic groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)
Religions: Christian 26.3% (Protestant 19.7%, Roman Catholic 6.6%), Buddhist 23.2%, other or unknown 1.3%, none 49.3% (1995 census)
Languages: Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.9% male: 99.2% female: 96.6% (2002)
 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Korea conventional short form: South Korea local long form: Taehan-min'guk local short form: Han'guk abbreviation: ROK
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Seoul geographic coordinates: 37 33 N, 126 59 E time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 7 metropolitan cities (gwangyoksi, singular and plural) provinces: Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto (North Cholla), Cholla-namdo (South Cholla), Ch'ungch'ong-bukto (North Ch'ungch'ong), Ch'ungch'ong-namdo (South Ch'ungch'ong), Kangwon-do, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto (North Kyongsang), Kyongsang-namdo (South Kyongsang) metropolitan cities: Inch'on-gwangyoksi, Kwangju-gwangyoksi, Pusan-gwangyoksi, Soul-t'ukpyolsi, Taegu-gwangyoksi, Taejon-gwangyoksi, Ulsan-gwangyoksi
Independence: 15 August 1945 (from Japan)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)
Constitution: 17 July 1948; note - amended or rewritten nine times; current constitution approved on 29 October 1987
Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President LEE Myung-bak (since 25 February 2008) head of government: Prime Minister CHUNG Un-chan (since 30 September 2009) cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly election results: LEE Myung-bak elected president on 19 December 2007; percent of vote - LEE Myung-bak (GNP) 48.7%; CHUNG Dong-young (UNDP) 26.1%); LEE Hoi-chang (independent) 15.1; others 10.1%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (299 seats; 245 members elected in single-seat constituencies, 54 elected by proportional representation; to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 9 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GNP 172, UDP 83, LFP 20, Pro-Park Alliance 8, DLP 5, CKP 1, independents 9
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president with consent of National Assembly); Constitutional Court (justices appointed by the president based partly on nominations by National Assembly and Chief Justice of the court)
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP [CHUNG Sye-kyun] (formerly the United Democratic Party or UDP); Democratic Labor Party or DLP [KANG Ki-kap]; Grand National Party or GNP [CHUNG Mong-joon]; Liberty Forward Party or LFP [LEE Hoi-chang]; New Progressive Party or NPP [ROH Hoe-chan]; Pro-Park Alliance or PPA [SUH Choung-won]; Renewal Korea Party or RKP [SONG Yong-o]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Federation of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations
International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CICA, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA, MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador HAN Duck-soo chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600 FAX: [1] (202) 387-0205 consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen STEPHENS embassy: 32 Sejongno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-710 mailing address: US Embassy Seoul, APO AP 96205-5550 telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114 FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845
 Economy
Since the 1960s, South Korea has achieved an incredible record of growth and global integration to become a high-tech industrialized economy. Four decades ago, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and Asia. In 2004, South Korea joined the trillion dollar club of world economies, and currently is among the world's twenty largest economies. Initially, this success was achieved by a system of close government and business ties including directed credit and import restrictions. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods, and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model including high debt/equity ratios and massive foreign borrowing. GDP plunged by 6.9% in 1998, then recovered by 9% in 1999-2000. Korea adopted numerous economic reforms following the crisis, including greater openness to foreign investment and imports. Growth moderated to about 4-5% annually between 2003 and 2007. With the global economic downturn in late 2008, South Korean GDP growth slowed to 2.2% in 2008 and declined 0.8% in 2009. In the third quarter of 2009, the economy began to recover, in large part due to export growth, low interest rates, and an expansionary fiscal policy. The South Korean economy's long term challenges include a rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, and overdependence on manufacturing exports to drive economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.343 trillion (2009 est.) $1.354 trillion (2008 est.) $1.325 trillion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):GDP (official exchange rate): $800.3 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.8% (2009 est.) 2.2% (2008 est.) 5.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,700 (2009 est.) $28,000 (2008 est.) $27,500 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 39.4% services: 57.6% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 24.37 million (2009 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7.2% industry: 25.1% services: 67.7% (2007)
Unemployment rate: 4.1% (2009 est.) 3.175% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7% highest 10%: 24.2% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31.3 (2007) 35.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2009 est.) 4.7% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):Investment (gross fixed): 28.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
Budget: revenues: $191.5 billion expenditures: $227.2 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt: 28% of GDP (2009 est.) 24.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish
Industries: electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel
Industrial production growth rate: -7.5% (2009 est.)
Electricity - production: 440 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 385.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production: 30,440 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption: 2.175 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports: 800,000 bbl/day note: exports consist of oil derivatives (gasoline, light oil, and diesel), not crude oil (2008 est.)
Oil - imports: 2.982 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl
Natural gas - production: 443 million cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 34.76 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 36.21 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 50 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $30.38 billion (2009 est.) $-6.349 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $355.1 billion (2009 est.) $433.5 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: semiconductors, wireless telecommunications equipment, motor vehicles, computers, steel, ships, petrochemicals
Exports - partners: China 21.4%, US 10.9%, Japan 6.6%, Hong Kong 4.6% (2008)
Imports: $313.4 billion (2009 est.) $427.4 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport equipment, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partners: China 17.7%, Japan 14%, US 8.9%, Saudi Arabia 7.8%, UAE 4.4%, Australia 4.1% (2008)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $245.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $201.2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $333.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $381.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $86 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $124.2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA (31 December 2009 est.) $74.6 billion (30 June 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $494.6 billion (31 December 2008) $1.124 trillion (31 December 2007) $835.2 billion (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates: South Korean won (KRW) per US dollar - 1,296.88 (2009), 1,101.7 (2008), 929.2 (2007), 954.8 (2006), 1,024.1 (2005)
Communications
Telephones in use: 21.325 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 13
Cellular Phones in use: 45.607 million (2008)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services wide available with a combined telephone subscribership of roughly 140 per 100 persons; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commerce international: country code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 66
Radio broadcast stations: AM 96, FM 322, shortwave 1 (2008)
Television broadcast stations: 57 (plus 103 cable operators and 119 relay cable operators) (2008)
Internet country code: .kr
Internet hosts: 301,270 (2009)
Internet users: 37.476 million (2008)
Transportation
Airports: 116 (2009) country comparison to the world: 53
Airports (paved runways): total: 72 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 22 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 22 (2009)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 44 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 42 (2009)
Heliports: 516 (2009)
Pipelines: gas 1,423 km; refined products 827 km (2008)
Railways: total: 3,381 km standard gauge: 3,381 km 1.435-m gauge (1,843 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total: 103,029 km paved: 80,642 km (includes 3,367 km of expressways) unpaved: 22,387 km (2008)
Waterways: 1,608 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2008)
Merchant marine: total: 812 by type: bulk carrier 212, cargo 226, carrier 2, chemical tanker 133, container 80, liquefied gas 33, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 26, petroleum tanker 61, refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll off 9, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 5 foreign-owned: 31 (China 1, Japan 20, Norway 2, UK 1, US 7) registered in other countries: 363 (Belize 1, Cambodia 22, China 1, Cyprus 1, Honduras 6, Hong Kong 3, Kiribati 2, Liberia 3, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 10, Mongolia 1, Netherlands 1, Panama 303, Russia 1, Singapore 3, Tuvalu 1, unknown 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Inch'on, P'ohang, Pusan, Ulsan
 Military

Military branches: Republic of Korea Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2009)
Military service age and obligation: 20-30 years of age for compulsory military service, with middle school education required; conscript service obligation - less than 22 months (Army, Marines), approx. 25 months (Air Force) (to be reduced to 18 months beginning 2016); 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service; women, in service since 1950, admitted to 7 service branches, including infantry, but excluded from artillery, armor, anti-air, and chaplaincy corps; some 4,000 women serve as commissioned and noncommissioned officers, approx. 2.3% of all officers (2009)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 13,691,809 females age 16-49: 13,029,859 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 10,991,263 females age 16-49: 10,356,604 (2009 est.)


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